I noticed the Microsoft Apps app for Android picked up an update today on my phone and it now asks if you are Windows Insider. If you are an Insider, you can sign in with your Microsoft Account and then it should link to the Your Phone app in Windows 10.
UPDATE: The app is now working and I have recorded a video of it in action. See my new post.
You tap the Get Started button sign in and then allow the app access to your photos library. You should then be able to see photos from your Android phone on your PC via the Your Phone app.
Currently the Your Phone app does not show sign of integration but Microsoft are planning to enable it soon as the code was added to the latest Redstone 5 build of Windows 10.